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Starch level was determined in ARs (sampled at 2W and 5W after planting) and in SRs (sampled at 5W) following the protocol of (MacRae (1971) with minor modifications. Gibberellin metabolism: new insights revealed by the genes. doi: 10.1023/B:PRES.0000011916.0000067519.0000011958, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Belehu, T., Hammes, P. S., Robbertse, P. J. Bot. Cross-sections of ARs at 1W and 2W after planting show that root anatomy was influenced by both GA3 and PB treatments, exhibiting higher number of xylem vessels (Figure 5A). (2004). Significance analysis was performed by using student’s t-test (P ≤ 0.05), where unlike letters represent significant differences between treatments within a sampling group. Ann. Paclobutrazol treatment did not cause a significant change in expression in either of the tested carbohydrate metabolism genes at 2W of development, while expression of IbSuSy, IbAGPa1 and IbAGPb1A was reduced when tested in 5W ARs (Figure 12). Collecting and Subdividing Plant Materials The preservation ot structural details of cells and tissues is in- fluenced by the condition of the plant at the time of collecting and by the subsequent preparation for killing (fixation) . In the presented work, in parallel to its promoting effect on xylem development and fiber formation, GA3 application caused induced lignification. Significance analysis was performed by using student’s t-test (P ≤ 0.05), where unlike letters represent significant differences between treatments within a group. Total 10 candidate reference genes, including beta actin, ribosomal protein L, glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase, cyclophilin, a-tubulin, ADP-ribosylation factor, histone H2B, ubiquitin extension protein, cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vc, and phospholipase D1a were tested. Il élabore un cahier des charges fonctionnel. Lire la transcription. Peru, Cecilia Lafosse. 5, 523–530. Int. Such an effect was previously reported in other systems like dandelion (Kim et al., 2009) and apple (Zhang et al., 2016). We have previously demonstrated that the initial stages of AR development are critical in determining SR set in sweetpotato (Villordon et al., 2009). – Horloger, Significance analysis was performed by using student’s t-test (P ≤ 0.05), where unlike letters represent significant differences between treatments within a group. Bull. Expression/transcript levels were measured at 1W, 2W and 5W after planting for AR and at 5W for SR, using qRT-PCR analyses and values were normalized relative to the expression levels of phospholipase D1a. All datasets generated for this study are included in the article/Supplementary Material. Lignification is considered part of the plant’s developmental program, being coordinated with the production of cellulose, hemicellulose, and other polysaccharides during secondary wall formation (Bonawitz and Chapple, 2010 and references therein). 19, 270–280. Planta 96, 101–108. Thereafter plants were irrigated with a low N fertilizer solution (100 mg/L of 20: 20: 20 N: P: K; Haifa Chemicals, Israel), twice a week, until the end of the experiment. (2014) showed that BP and STM weak mutants inhibit fiber formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyl and suggested that in the cambium, compared to the shoot meristem, KNOX genes (BP and STM) may have opposite consequences caused through different mechanisms. Cette demande doit être formulée, en principe, dans les quinze jours qui suivent le début des cours. Il conçoit tout ou partie d'un produit microtechnique ainsi que les outillages de validation de processus. AGPase, ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase; AR, adventitious root; BP, BREVIPEDICELLUS; CAD, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; CCoAOMT, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase; C4H, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; 4CL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase; GA, gibberellin; GAI, gibberellic acid insensitive; GBSS, granule-bound starch synthase; GID1, GA insensitive dwarf 1; GA2ox, GA 2-oxidase; GA20ox, GA 20-oxidase; GA3ox, GA 3-oxidase; HCT, p-Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: quinate shikimate p-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase; KNOX, Class I knotted 1-like; KO, ent-kaurene oxidase; LR, lateral root; NST/SND, NAC secondary-wall thickening promoting factor/secondary-wall-associated NAC domain protein; PAL, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; PB, paclobutrazol; PGM, phosphoglucomutase; Ph-HCl, phloroglucinol-HCl; RSA, root system architecture; SP, starch phosphorylase; SR, storage-root; SuSy, sucrose synthase; VND, vascular-related NAC domain; VNI2, VND-INTERACTING2; XND1, XYLEM NAC DOMAIN 1. ^. Morphological characteristics, anatomical structure and gene expression: novel insights into gibberellin biosynthesis and perception during carot growth and development. Since starch accumulation is an important indication for formation of a SR, we investigated starch content at 2W (in ARs) and 5W (in ARs and SRs) after planting in nontreated and treated (GA3- and PB-treated) plant roots (Figure 7A). doi: 110.1007/BF00386360. Thus, GA3 application affected both, the capacity of ARs to become SRs, and the further development and “bulking” of the small number of SRs that were formed. Recent progress in molecular studies on storage root formation in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas). effectuer des activités de conception, production, contrôle ; avoir une vision transversale de l'élaboration des produits mécaniques, notamment microtechniques ; s'initier à la conception et la réalisation d'outillages ; appréhender son environnement technique, économique et humain au sein de l'entreprise ; maîtriser la conduite de projet et les bases du management ; avoir les compétences techniques nécessaires à la conception, à l'industrialisation, à la production, au contrôle et à l'optimisation du produit (CAO, usinage, métrologie tridimensionnelle...) ; avoir une maîtrise opérationnelle des outils informatiques (bureautique, PLM, CFAO, MMT, prototypage...). This image is no longer for sale. Figure 13 Schematic presentation showing a central role for gibberellin (GA) in formation of either lignified non-storage roots or storage roots. Association Intercariforef - Réseau des Carif-Oref. Gibberellin enhances xylem development and proliferation, and lignin accumulation, following the upregulation of NAC-domain genes (regulators of vascular development), and lignin biosynthesis genes, together with reducing root system architecture and lateral root development, bringing about the formation of lignified non-storage roots. Dev. This image is no longer for sale. : Personnalisation de la pendulette aux couleurs du Crédit Agricole, Notre participation au concours « je filme le métier qui me plaît », Les activités de l’Association Sportive du lycée Diderot. Compounds were quantified by multiple ion monitoring mode (MRM) as described (Kolachevskaya et al., 2017). doi: 310.1016/j.cub.2011.1002.1036, Tanaka-Ueguchi, M., Itoh, H., Oyama, N., Koshioka, M., Matsuoka, M. (1998). Dev. Images were analyzed using the WinRHIZO software version 5b (Regent Instruments Inc., Quebec, Canada), and by ImageJ software [ImageJ 1.51a, NIH, USA, (Schneider et al., 2012)]. – CAP Outillages en outils à découper et à emboutir. For safranin-fast green staining, deparaffinized samples were stained for 2 h in safranin-O (1%) with counter staining for 10 s in fast green (0.5%). Furthermore, GA3 treatment caused significant downregulation of carbohydrate metabolism and starch biosynthesis genes including genes encoding the small and large subunits (IbAGPa1 and IbAGPb1A) of the regulatory step in starch biosynthesis, conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and ATP to ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate by AGPase (Ballicora et al., 2004). This is followed by a series of reactions, involving the following enzymes: cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), p-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: quinate shikimate p-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT), caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) (Raes et al., 2003). Plant J. Control (treated with water); GA3, application of 50 ppm gibberellic acid 3 for two weeks; PB, application of 5 ppm paclobutrazol for two weeks. Figure 8 The effect of GA3 application on expression profiles of sweetpotato “Georgia Jet” orthologs/genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis (A), catabolism (B), and signaling/regulation (C) in adventitious roots (AR) and storage-roots (SR). Nonetheless, these results further substantiate the link between LR development and the capacity of the AR for SR formation (both being inhibited by PB application). Storage-root (SR) number, average diameter and fresh weight (FW) per plant were recorded at five weeks (5W) after planting. Sections were stained with safranin and fast green, and represent six to eight roots sampled from individual plants. Powdered samples (250 mg), obtained following grinding in liquid N2, were treated with 6 ml of 80% ethanol and incubated at 70°C for 45 min. Shoot meristem size is dependent on inbred background and presence of the maize homeobox gene, knotted1. Conditions d'admission, le contenu de la formation, les matières enseignées et les débouchés après la formation bac pro Microtechniques Dried herbarium specimens can be softened and sectioned to make slides in which it is possible to determine the gross features of vascular arrangement or carpellary organization (Hyland, 1941). (2002). The inhibitory effect of GA3 on expression levels of all tested genes (except IbPGM) was evident also in SRs. (2017). Bars represent mean of four independent biological replicates (plants) ± SE. XND1, a member of the NAC domain family in Arabidopsis thaliana, negatively regulates lignocellulose synthesis and programmed cell death in xylem. Localization of cell wall polysaccharides in normal and compression wood of radiata pine: relationships with lignification and microfibril orientation. Plant Cell. The fibrous roots produce xylem vessels and xylem fibers, and SRs produce mainly starch-storing xylem parenchyma cells (Yang et al., 2011). The BP gene was previously shown to regulate lignin accumulation and lignin biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis (Mele et al., 2003). doi: 110.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.01018.x, Zhang, S., Zhang, D., Fan, S., Du, L., Shen, Y., Xing, L., et al. J. Mole. Moreover, area covered by xylem elements (vessels and fibers) and total root area were calculated using the imagej software (Imagej 1.51a, NIH, USA, (Schneider et al., 2012), and percent root area occupied by xylem vessels (protoxylem, metaxylem, and secondary xylem) and xylem fibers was determined. Physiol. Total xylem vessel number was calculated by counting the number of protoxylem, metaxylem and secondary xylem elements in root sections. , is a colorless, neutral medium in which most standard stains are well preserved. Additional studies are thus needed in order to better understand the effect of PB on xylem development and lignin accumulation, as compared to GA3. Figure 4 Effect of GA3 application on endogenous GAs levels in sweetpotato “Georgia Jet” roots. The list of all sweetpotato contigs together with the respective Arabidopsis genes is presented in Table 1. You cannot download or purchase for any new licenses. Contact :  scoliut25@univ-fcomte.fr ou  03.81.66.68.08 / 68.21 / 68.22. [PhD thesis]. 124, 33–44. Sci. Res. 18, 3158–3170. (2008). AD-F did bioinformatics analysis. doi: 2210.1105/tpc.2104.024190, Scofield, S., Murray, J. Bars represent mean of 16 independent biological replicates (plants) ± SE. Significance analysis was performed by using student’s t-test (P ≤ 0.05), where unlike letters represent significant differences between treatments within a sampling group. 22, 1249–1263. BTS CPRP Conception de Processus et Réalisation de Produits The integrity and quantity of RNA was examined by gel-electrophoresis and nanodrop (ND 1000, Thermo Scientific, USA), respectively. Download this stock image: . Altered phenylpropanoid metabolism in the maize LcExpressed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) affects storage root development. Stem cuttings with three nodes (nodes number 10 to 12 from the plant apex) were used for the study as described previously (Ma et al., 2015). doi: 510.1038/nature14099, Tesfahun, W. (2018). Transcript levels of sweetpotato orthologues of the Arabidopsis GA biosynthesis genes IbKO, IbGA20ox, and IbGA3ox and the receptor IbGID1 were highly upregulated by GA3, while transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes of GA deactivation (IbGA2ox1 and IbGA2ox3) were found to be downregulated, matching the induced endogenous GAs levels observed in our study and pointing to the potential existence of a feedforward mechanism. La sélection se fait sur dossier, éventuellement avec un entretien. After incubation, ethanol was discarded and tubes containing ethanol-insoluble sugar (starch) were kept in an oven at 60°C for drying overnight. Ce professionnel fabrique des maquettes ou prototypes à l’unité ou en petite série. – Technicien de maintenance en microtechniques, Wang, G. L., Xiong, F., Que, F., Xu, Z., Wang, F., Xiong, A. S. (2015a). (2009). It should be mentioned in this context that other hormones, like auxin and cytokinin, are known to be involved in root growth and development and cross-talk between GA and different hormones was documented in various systems (Ogawa et al., 2003; Pacifci et al., 2015). A high-resolution transcript profile across the wood-forming meristem of poplar identifies potential regulators of cambial stem cell identity. Sci. Duan, A. Q., Feng, K., Wang, G. L., Liu, J. X., Xu, Z. S., Xiong, A. S. (2019). doi: 510.1146/annurev.arplant.1154.031902.134938, Bolduc, N., Hake, S. (2009). The effluent was introduced into electrospray ion source of Xevo® TQ-S triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Waters MS Technologies, Manchester, UK), having the capillary voltage of 3 kV. Botany -- Anatomy; Botany -- Morphology; Microscopy -- Technique; Microscopes -- Technique; Botany; Plants -- anatomy & histology; Microscopy. In addition, application of GA3 influenced root xylem development, caused increased lignin deposition, and decreased starch accumulation. Figure 2 Effect of GA3 application on sweetpotato “Georgia Jet” root system architecture parameters. In addition, GA3 application caused down-regulation in expression of IbGBSS and IbSP (2.1- and 2.6-fold, respectively, in 5W ARs). At 5W, both adventitious roots (AR) that did not develop into storage-root (SR), and SR were analyzed. Thus, the genes/mechanisms highlighted in the present study can serve for future experiments dealing with the molecular basis of the effect of stress on SR formation. Such a correlation between lignin levels and gene expression of lignin biosynthesis genes (including IbPAL, IbCL, and IbCAD) was previously shown by us to exist in sweetpotato roots, when comparing between the transcriptome of lignified roots and roots exhibiting SR initiation (marked by development of “anomalous cambial cells”; Firon et al., 2013). Gibberellin biosynthesis is regulated by ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), and GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) genes and degradation is governed by a family of GA 2-oxidase isoforms (GA2ox) (Hedden and Phillips, 2000). Expression/transcript levels were measured at 1W, 2W, and 5W after planting for AR and at 5W for SR, using qRT-PCR analyses, and values were normalized relative to the expression levels of phospholipase D1a. By clicking OK, you are confirming that this image is only to be used for the rights in the existing license. We thank the Chief Scientist of The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Israel, Grant Agreement No. Figure 3 Effect of GA3 application on sweetpotato “Georgia Jet” storage-root characteristics. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. For the study of normal structure, select healthy, representative plants. 66, 1113–1121. Expression profiling of cassava storage roots reveals an active process of Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis. Photosyn. Informations mises à jour le 23/07/2008 par Certif Info. 53, 425–436. In this context, it is of interest to highlight class I knotted 1-like (KNOX) genes, pointed out previously in different plant systems (Arabidopsis, poplar, and sweetpotato) as regulators of plant meristems, including cambial cells (Schrader et al., 2004; Scofield and Murray, 2006; Tanaka et al., 2008). Such genes include phosphoglucomutase (PGM), ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch phosphorylase (SP) (Geigenberger, 2011). Aménagement d'études : étudiant(e) en situation particulière. 256 (3), 777–788. ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase: a regulatory enzyme for plant starch synthesis. Pro-texx (RI = 1.495) Technicon Resin (RI = 1.62) Uv-inert (RI = 1.517) XAM (RI = 1.52). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Plant J. Schneider, C. A., Rasband, W. S., Eliceiri, K. W. (2012). Vollbrecht, E., Reiser, L., Hake, S. (2000). Paclobutrazol application did not show an effect on starch accumulation in ARs at either 2W or 5W after planting, while causing reduction in starch levels accumulating in SRs. Plant Biol. The results show a significant increase in IbKO expression following GA3 application, exhibiting 4.1- and 3.6-fold increased transcript level at 2W and 5W ARs, respectively, compared with control (Figure 8A). The results show that GA3 application influenced sweetpotato plant development by increasing stem elongation, caused a significant increase in levels of root bioactive GAs, decreased the number of ARs as well as the number and length of LRs, and reduced significantly the number of SRs. This phenomenon was already apparent at 1W and 2W after planting (Figure 5C). – 84 semaines en établissement scolaire / 2 semaines d’examens Differential expression of two distinct phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes in condensed tannin-accumulating and lignifying cells of quaking Aspen. Thereafter, samples were reconstituted in 60 µL of initial mobile phase 10 mM formic acid: MeOH (80: 20, v/v), filtered through micro spin filters 0.2 µm (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) and injected onto reversed-phase UPLC CSH C18 column (100 x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) of Acquity UPLCTM I-Class Core System (Waters, USA). 15, 1591–1604. Select from the license options below to get a price. Le titulaire de cette licence professionnelle évolue dans un contexte d'ingéniérie collaboratrice. The 3D structure of xylem strands was analyzed in a confocal microscope (LSM, FluoView1000, Olympus Optical Co.). Colour-coded images were analysed with Image-Pro Plus version 2.0.0.260 (Media Cybernetics, Inc., USA; Fig. Plant Physiol. Interestingly, it was found that BP can regulate lignin biosynthesis. The mechanisms underlying this developmental switch are still unclear. Plant Sci., 15 November 2019 J'aime bien démonter les pièces, voir comment ça marche. doi: 1310.1093/pcp/pci1141, Kim, Y. H., Hamayun, M., Khan, A. L., Na, C., Kang, S. M., Han, H. H., et al. Exogenous application of PB, as opposed to GA3, did not induce secondary xylem and fiber formation, and its induction of lignification was less pronounced. McGregor, C. E. (2006). Combined supernatants were dried in a Speed-Vac concentrator (Savant SC210A, Thermo, US), reconstituted by 5% of NH4OH (v/v) and loaded on Oasis® MAX column (6 cc/150 mg, Waters Co., Milford, MA, USA). Recently, a correlation was established in cassava between expression of xylem differentiation- and lignin-biosynthesis-regulators, and fibrous root development (Siebers et al., 2017). 8, e25504. Molecular cloning and functional expression of gibberellin 2-oxidases, multifunctional enzymes involved in gibberellin deactivation. doi: 10.1007/s00709-00002-00030-y, Rademacher, W. (2000). doi: 310.1046/j.1365-1313X.1998.00217.x, Tanaka, M. (2016). 17.1) . Copyright complaints  ~   NAC transcription factors, NST1 and NST3, are key regulators of the formation of secondary walls in woody tissues of Arabidopsis. Gibberellin was previously demonstrated to promote xylogenesis, induction of fiber production and fiber length, as well as lignification, in numerous plant systems including tobacco, carrot, and hybrid aspen (Eriksson et al., 2000; Biemelt et al., 2004; Dayan et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2017). Il lance et gère une production sérielle. Figure 6 Effect of GA3 application on sweetpotato “Georgia Jet” root lignin accumulation as viewed by auto-fluorescence imaging (A) and phloroglucinol-HCl staining (B). BTS CIM Conception et Industrialisation en Microtechniques Il se charge de l’assemblage, du montage et des tests de ces produits. (2013). We show that application of the plant hormone gibberellin increased stem elongation and root gibberellin levels, while having inhibitory effects on root system parameters, decreasing lateral root number and length, and significantly reducing storage-root number and diameter. CIP. doi: 4310.1242/dev.111369, Ma, J., Aloni, R., Villordon, A., Labonte, D., Kfir, Y., Zemach, H., et al. Dayan, J., Schwarzkopf, M., Avni, A., Aloni, R. (2010). Moreover, up-regulation of key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in sweetpotato roots, by overexpressing the maize leaf color gene, was found to correlate with higher lignification, lower starch accumulation, and lower SR yield (Wang et al., 2016). Indeed, Villordon and Clark (2014) and Villordon et al. Response of crops to paclobutrazol application. (2005). Figure 1 Effect of GA3 application on sweetpotato “Georgia Jet” stem growth. 21, R338–R345. (2005). Excellent work can be done with such apparatus if the component parts are correctly aligned. doi: 510.1146/annurev.arplant.1151.1141.1501, Raes, J., Rohde, A., Christensen, J. H., de Peer, Y. V., Boerjan, W. (2003). Fibre, fibre wall and lumen areas were measured for an average of 170 fibres per sample (±57) lying in two parallel rows from pith to cambium. 59, 225–251. Similar findings were reported recently in carrot taproot, demonstrating increased lignification following GA3 treatment (Wang et al., 2017). 156, 391–400. doi: http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB, Kolachevskaya, O. O., Sergeeva, L., Flokova, K., Getman, I. To look for genes involved in the regulation of root xylem development and vascular lignification following GA3 application, we identified the following sweetpotato orthologues of the respective Arabidopsis genes: IbNAC075 (upstream regulator of VND7) (Endo et al., 2015), IbVND7 (involved in xylem vessel differentiation) (Yamaguchi et al., 2008), IbSND2 (regulator of genes involved in secondary wall development) (Hussey et al., 2011), IbXND1 (negative regulator of xylem formation) (Tang et al., 2018), IbVNI2 (transcriptional repressor of VND7) (Yamaguchi et al., 2010), and IbVNI2-like (Table 1) and their transcript profiles were investigated (Figure 9).

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